India and Pakistan Border
The India and Pakistan Border, also known as the International Border (IB), is the international border running between India and Pakistan. The border runs from the Line of Control (LoC), which separates Kashmir from Pakistan controlled Kashmir, in the north, to Wagah.
Based upon the Radcliffe line in 1947, the border, which separates Pakistan and India from each other, is one of the most complex borders in the world. The border's total length is 3,323 km. it also one of the most dangerous borders in the world, based on an article written in the Foreign Policy in 2011. It can be seen from space at night due to the 150,000 flood lights installed by India on about 50 thousand poles. The borders on both sides are controlled by their respective security forces - Pakistan Rangers of Pakistan and the Border Security Force (BSF) of India.
This border runs along the States of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and J&K. The Indo-Pakistan border has varied terrain and distinct geographical features. This border is characterized by attempts at infiltration by terrorists and smuggling of arms, ammunition and contraband, the LoC being the most active and live portion of the border. A total length of about 547 kms, about 463 kms has been fenced and flood lit in the entire Punjab sector, except some gaps of about 85 kms of riverine areas. where as the land route is barbed with a fence, the riverine route is almost porous despite the 'presence of the BSF.
Both land and riverine route is used for smuggling or drugs, arms and ammunitions where as the riverine route is popular with terrorists. normal modus operandi for the land route is that of pushing in drugs, arms and explosives, as also the RDX, which is stuffed in to hollow PVC pipes and then pushed through. occasionally, tossing over the fence has also come in notice, but in such cases, quantities are smaller. occasionally. attempts have also been made either to cut the wire or to dig in a 'tunnel'. on the riverine route, fishing boats are used though in lean season, one can even waddle through. Terrorists both of Dinanagar and Pathankot incidents had come from the latter route. Initially they are reported to have stated with their ‘sleeper cells’ living on the Indian Territory and then moved ahead with the local help.
Types of Drugs (Besides Alcohol, which is the most popular drink) being Abused in Punjab
1- Pharmaceutical Drugs, which are used almost all over the state.
2- Opiates, opium derivatives and Opium
a- Poppy husk, popularly called Bhukki. It is more popular in the old PEPSU region (Patiala, Sangrur, Barnala, Mansa, Bhatinda etc. and in Faridkot and Ferozepur areas of Punjab.
b- Smack and other substandard quality of heroin is more in use in the border areas of Punjab, Doaba region consisting of Jalandhar, Nawan Shehar, Phillaur and in urban centers all over
3- Synthetic drugs are used less commonly because of being expensive. Produced in Punjab as well, they are primarily being used in the Metros in India and are mostly ‘exported’.
4- Cocaine is ‘imported’ primarily through Goa and Mumbai and being used by a few of the ‘top crust people.
5- Ingenious ‘drugs’ like inhaling liquids and other preparations containing ‘high’ are also used by the poorer strata.
Cause of the Punjab Drug Epidemic
Primary causes include, easy availability, peer group and social pressures and anxieties, unemployment, easy money, wide and free distribution by political parties during elections, lack of awareness etc.