Monday, 17 October 2016

UNDERSTANDING KASHMIR, Part 3... Pakistan’s attack on Kashmir under the disguise of ‘tribal forces’…


Pakistan’s attack on Kashmir under the disguise of ‘tribal forces’…

Indo-Pakistan War of 1947–1948


(Note; Maps have been taken, as they are on the net and in some books on the subject. They may or may not be authentic. Our stand rightly remains and shall remain that the entire Kashmir, including the areas occupied by Pakistan and China, are an integral part of India)

Stage 1;
October 3-4 to October 26, 1947

The first so-called tribal attack, with active support and participation of Pakistani militia / forces, took place at Thorar on October 3-4, 1947 followed by another on October 22 in the Muzzafarabad sector. State forces were quickly defeated. The aggressors engaged in massive looting and committing crime against civilian population, including women and children.

Stage 2;
October 27th to November 17, 1947

After signing of the Instrument of Accession, Indian forces were air lifted to reinforce the forces of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Despite adverse terrain and climatic conditions, Indian forces fortified their potions. Pushed back the Pakistani militia and tribals from the out skirts of Srinagar, defended Badgam. Successful operation in Badgam, pushed Pakistanis till Baramulla and Uri and these towns were recaptured.

Stage 3;
18 November 1947 – 26 November 1947

After recapturing Uri and Baramulla, forces  moved towards Poonch and Kotli.
Pakistan captured Mirpur on November 25th. Atrocities were perpetrated on Hindu women. Many committed suicide but several were ‘captured’ by Pakistanis and sent to Pakistan.

Stage 4;
25 November 1947 – 6 February 1948

The tribal forces attacked and captured Jhanger. They then attacked Naoshera unsuccessfully and made a series of unsuccessful attacks on Uri. In the South, Indian forces secured Chamb. By this stage of the war the front line began to stabilise as more Indian troops became available.

Stage 5;
Operation Vijay: counterattack on Jhanger 7 February 1948 – 1 May 1948

Indian forces launched a counterattack in the South and recaptured Jhanger and Rajauri. In Kashmir Valley the tribal forces continued attacking the Uri army base.
In the North Skardu brought under siege by the Gilgit scouts.

Stage 6;
Indian Spring Offensive 1 May 1948 – 18 May 1948

India held onto Jhanger despite numerous attacks openly supported by regular Pakistani Forces.
In Kashmir Valley Indian forces recaptured Tithwail
The Gilgit scouts advanced in the High Himalayan sector, infiltrating troops to bring Leh under siege, capturing Kargil and defeating a relief column heading for Skardu.

Stage 7;
Operation Gulab. 19 May 1948 – 14 August 1948

Indian forces continued operations  Kashmir Valley, driving north to capture Keran and Gurais. Repelled a counterattack aimed at Tithwal.
In the Jammu region, the forces besieged in Poonch broke out and temporarily linked up with the outside world again. The Kashmir State army was able to defend Skardu from the Gilgit Scouts impeding their advance down the Indus valley towards Leh.
However in August the Chitral and Pakistani armies besieged and captured Skardu with the help of artillery. They further tried making move into Ladakh.

Stage 8;
Operation Duck 15 August 1948 – 31 October 1948
Operation Bison;

Front began to settle down. The siege of Poonch continued. An unsuccessful attack was launched by 77 para to capture Zoji La pass. Operation Duck, the earlier epithet for this assault, was renamed as Operation Bison by Cariappa. M5 Stuart light tanks of 7 cavalry were moved in dismantled conditions through Srinagar while two field companies of the Madras Sappers converted the mule track across Zoji La into a jeep track. The surprise attack on 1 November by the brigade with armour supported by two regiments of 25 pounders and a regiment of 3.7 inch guns, forced the pass and pushed the tribal and Pakistani forces back to Matayan and later to Dras. The brigade linked up on 24 November at Kargil with Indian troops advancing from Leh while their opponents eventually withdrew northwards toward Skardu. Pakistan again attacked Skardu on 10 February 1948 which was repulsed by the Indian soldiers. Thereafter, Skardu Garrison was subjected to continuous attacks by  Pakistani Army for the next three months and each time, their attack was repulsed by the Indian forces which held the Skardu with hardly 250 men for whole six long months without any reinforcement and replenishment. On 14 August Indian General Sher Jung Thapa had to surrender Skardu to the Pakistani Army.

Stage 9;
Operation Easy. Poonch link-up 1 November 1948 – 26 November 1948

Indian Army started to get upper hand in all sectors leading to massive uproar by Pakistant and escalation of massive international pressure on India to halt. Poonch was finally relieved after a siege of over a year. The Gilgit forces in the High Himalayas, who had previously made good progress, were finally defeated. Indian army persued them as far as Kargil before being forced to halt due to supply problems. The Zoji La pass was forced by using tanks (which had not been thought possible at that altitude) and Dras was recaptured.

Stage 10;
Moves up to cease-fire. 27 November 1948 – 31 December 1948

Under heavy international pressure on India and protracted negotiations, a cease-fire was enforced on 1st January 1949. Terms of the cease-fire as laid out in a United Nations resolution of 13 August 1948, were adopted by the UN on 5 January 1949. This required Pakistan to withdraw its forces, both regular and irregular, while allowing India to maintain minimum strength of its forces in the state to preserve law and order. On compliance of these conditions a plebiscite was to be held to determine the future of the territory. Pakistan, however, did not withdraw its forces from the Line of Control, as it was on that day.  

Indian losses were 1,500 killed and 3,500 wounded.
Pakistani losses were 6,000 killed and 14,000 wounded.

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